A Puzzle About Bones

Just after New Year (Jan 2014) we went for a walk in Shadmoor Park and ended up on Ditch Plains Beach.  That is where I found two vertebrae still stuck together by ligaments.  They were larger than human vertebrae, measuring 3-4 inches in the largest diameter.  A quick phone call to my biologist friend, Marguerite W, confirmed that these were mammalian bones and not from a large fish, like a shark.  Fish vertebral bodies (called the centrum) would be biconcave, as shown here. These were not.  Then, I had a phone call with a friend, Annie Sessler. She is a well known artist out here who makes beautiful fish prints!  Her husband Jim, is a Montauk fisherman.   ‘Some kind of whale’ or marine mammal was their opinion. Now I was really intrigued!photo[6] photo[5]Then I got this rare book from the Cornell Vet School library called “Whales of the World” by Spencer Wilkie Tinker (1988).  It describes in detail all 77 species of living whales on this planet and also a bunch of extinct species based on fossil records.
It was a stroke of luck that we could identify the vertebrae (which were stuck together) as C7, T1.  That’s the last cervical and the first thoracic vertebrae.  The thoracic vertebrae have an articular joint surface for a rib on either side.  All mammals have 7 cervical (neck) vertebrae.  Giraffe’s have very long ones.  Some animals have very short ones.  And sometimes the cervical vertebrae are fused together!  However, C7 in our case was not fused to either of its neighboring vertebrae, T1 or C6. The “common dolphin”  has fused C1-7, according to “Whales of the World”.   Therefore we did not think that these were vertebrae from the common dolphin.  In the same book, there is a photograph on page 39 of a side view of a cervical spine of the common dolphin.  To my astonishment T1 looked just like the T1 vertebra that we found!  So, we were thinking of a close relative of the common dolphin.

The size of the vertebrae we found suggested an animal slightly larger than a human (approx 75-200 kg).   Using this as a guide, I then focused on 8 species listed in the whale book, that live in the North Western Atlantic, at our latitude 40 N .   I googled which of these species had recently been spotted in the waters around Long Island. The list was now really short:

  • bottlenose dolphin
  • common dolphin (unlikely because of the fused C spine)

In particular, there were lots of sightings and on-line reports about bottlenose dolphins around Long Island.

Apparently there has been an epidemic due to a type of measles virus and it has killed hundreds of bottlenose dolphins in our waters (in the Long Island sound and around Montauk).   This species has apparently been migrating northwards as witnessed by the larger numbers spotted since about  2007.
Here are some links which I found interesting:

800px-Bottlenose_Dolphin_KSC04pd0178

Having been introduced to this species by their bones, I noted that these are in fact very interesting animals!  Bottlenose dolphins can recognize themselves in a mirror!  They can use sponges as tools and transmit cultural knowledge across generations. Their considerable intelligence has driven interaction with humans.  I am now an official dolphin fan!

Happy New Year!

maidstonejewelry:

My kind of New Year “greeting card”

Originally posted on Beach Treasures and Treasure Beaches:

Happy New Year!

Happy New Year!

~~~

View original

How to set Beach Glass

Glass is fragile. You drop it and it breaks, you drill it and it breaks, you hammer a metal setting around it and it breaks, you force it in to a bezel and it breaks…   No wonder that some of us would rather not work with glass!  There are however some techniques that are used extensively.  Here is a discussion of these techniques. I am sure the list is not exhaustive.

Wire wrapping techniques

Glue Glass Pendant

Blue Glass Pendant

Fine Silver Earrings with Intricate Wire wrapping

Fine Silver Earrings with Intricate Wire wrapping

These are really common.  They are easy.  You don’t need to work the glass itself.  Note that wire techniques are not specially good for rings or for jewelry that is likely to get banged around.  Some of these techniques are a bit flimsy and the piece of glass can come out of the setting.  There are numerous different wire wrapping techniques. I refer you to just one website.  There are also YouTube videos.  Just google “wirewrap beach glass”.  The “Blue Glass Pendant” shown here, was wrapped by myself with a homemade technique using fine silver wire, which is nice and soft.  The earrings were wrapped by an unknown artist in Cusco, Peru.

Wire solder technique

Light Green Beach Glass set with 18 Gauge Sterling Silver Wire

Light Green Beach Glass set with 18 Gauge Sterling Silver Wire

You can use thick wire that is not easily formed or wrapped.  I like to use gauge 18 Sterling silver. The idea is to create a “basket” with prongs, place the glass in the basket, and bend the prongs around the glass to hold it in place.  I have attached an example.  Here the prongs are the same in the front and the back so that is does not matter if the pendant flips over, as the front and the back look identical.

Blue sapphire set over light blue beach glass (pendant in Sterling silver)

Blue sapphire set over light blue beach glass (pendant in Sterling silver)

A variation of this technique allows for a smaller stone (blue sapphire in this case) to be set on one of the prongs!

Bezel setting

Bezel formed by hand with thin (gauge 32) soft silver.

Bezel formed by hand with thin (gauge 32) soft silver.

This is more serious.  You will have to cut your silver, solder it together and form a bezel that is shaped after the irregular piece of glass that you want to frame.  It has become my favorite method because the bezel protects the piece of sea glass.  If you shape the base of the bezel, you can accommodate a rounded piece of glass, such as a piece from the neck of a bottle.  Here are a few examples.

Purple glass from a bottle top with silver bezel and brass base formed to fit the inside curvature of the glass

Purple glass from a bottle top with silver bezel and brass base formed to fit the inside curvature of the glass

Drilling the Glass

If you really want to make a hole in your sea glass, you can do so.  Drill with a diamond bit, under cool water, carefully and slowly!  I found out the hard way: it is easy to crack your piece of glass.

One can insert a silver grommet in the drilled hole for added stability, as shown in the last picture. But you will have to tap the grommet with a hammer to close it.  That is tricky and can crack your piece of glass too! Best to use very soft and thin metal tubing for this purpose.  Have fun.

Drilled beach glass (heart shaped) with silver grommet

Drilled beach glass (heart shaped) with silver grommet

Beach Art

I spent the summer on different beaches: the Pacific coast of Northern California, the Maggia river in Switzerland and our home beaches of East Hampton.  Everywhere there is art on display.  Not by famous artists but by common people that pick up stuff from the beach and put it together to make a “work of art”.  It is playful.  It also is testament to the beauty of nature.  Often not much is needed to beautify the scene.  Other times the objects are small (a pebble), or common (litter), or unnoticed (drift wood) and the artist wants to draw attention to their unique beauty.   Here are some specimens I found.

Beach Dragon (Arcata CA)

Beach Dragon (Arcata CA)

Decorated Roots (East Hampton NY)

Decorated Roots (East Hampton NY)

Beach Wood and Iron (Maggia Tal)

Beach Wood and Iron (Maggia Tal)

Display (Maggia Tal)

Display (Maggia Tal)

Elephant Seal, Big Sur (CA)  Art?  Why not?

Elephant Seal, Big Sur (CA) Art? Why not?

Mosaics in Arcata

This is my 2nd contribution in regard to our summer motorcycle trip which brought us up through the mountains from San Diego to Arcata (via Sequoia National Park, Yosemite National Park, Lake Tahoe, Lassen Volcanic National Park).  Arcata is on the Pacific Ocean and home to Humboldt State Univ.   It is a college town.  We stayed with a good friend for 2 days.  Time to clean and rest up and to visit Laurel Skye’s “SkyeLab“!  Laurel is a mosaic artist.  She teaches across the country (and even in Italy), writes books on her art form, and uses her home as a studio or “lab”.  She also sells mosaic supplies.  She generously invites interested folks to visit and that is what we did!

on the porch

on the porch

Stool

Stool

Supplies

Supplies

Toilet bowl tiled with copper pennies

Toilet bowl tiled with copper pennies

Mosaic plates (some are used for light switch covers)

Mosaic plates (some are used for light switch covers)

The entire house is decorated with mosaics, the porch, the front door, the floors, the walls, chairs, tables, the garden, the kitchen, the bathtub and even the toilet bowl!  Here are some pictures, but be sure to visit her own website where you will see a mosaic decorated mandolin and a trumpet!  There are lots of ideas on how to use mosaics to decorate your own home.  Also, you should check out some of the other artists featured on mosaicartsource.com.

I am truly amazed at the many different styles and the expressive nature of some of the art work.

Rock Hound on a Motorcycle

On July 27th I flew to San Diego and rented a 1200 RT BMW motorcycle with 4 in line cylinders, a powerful bike with which I was going to cruise 2600 miles across California.  My friend Manu lives in San Diego with his Kawasaki Versys 650.  He picked me up at the airport and we went right to the beamer rental shop.   The next day we set out early, the first leg of a 12 day journey, all the way up to Arcata, CA, on as many scenic routes as possible and then back down along the coast.   We crashed overnight at the cheapest motels in town or at a friend’s house, but we had dinners every night at the best restaurant we could find on Yelp!

Snowflake Obsidian

Snowflake Obsidian

On our way south, in Carlotta, CA, we stopped at Chapman’s Gem and Mineral shop on route 101, also called the Redwood Highway.  This is paradise for rock hounds.  For a couple of dollars I bought snowflake obsidian, jasper, rhodonite and much more. Here are some samples.

Rhodonite

Rhodonite

We stopped in Fort Bragg, CA, and we took the trail to “Glass Beach”.  This was a dump site for local residents, until 1967.  Now, in stead of sand, the ground is composed of small shards of smooth glass, ground extensively by the sea waves.  I had read about the place.  But we found the pieces of glass to be too small to use for jewelry.

Glass Beach

Glass Beach

Rarely, one finds a piece that is larger than 2 cm.

We had passed places called ‘Topaz’, ‘Diamond Valley’ and ‘Emerald Bay’.  Each time I took note and looked for some explanation for the bejeweled name.  No success.  Not until we discovered ‘Jade Cove’ in Big Sur!  It lies protected

nephrite

Nephrite

Cliffs of Jade Cove

Cliffs of Jade Cove

within a National Forest. It is easy to get to from Highway 1.  The green cliffs are composed of nephrite (a type of jade) and also serpentine.   Nephrite is a soft stone (Mohs 6) which is easy to carve and when polished it is vitreous and has an oily luster.  It can be very elegant with white to green to grey hues.  It was  considered an imperial stone in chinese dynasties.  Here are some of my samples.

Nephrite

Nephrite

There is more to come about other adventures on this trip, although they have little to do with lapidary or jewelry.  Stay tuned!

Before I set out on this trip, my 17 year old gave me a penguin stuffed animal – a talisman to keep me safe.  Penguino, as we called him, became a pro at riding the motorcycle…

Penguino

Penguino

WHAT ABOUT COPPER JEWELRY?

Many summers ago I met an interesting looking lady at an art fair. She wore lots of jewelry, I mean a ring on every finger. The thing was, it was all copper jewelry! She bought, guess what, copper rings from me (see picture).

Set of 3 copper bands with Sterling silver nuggets ($30).

Set of 3 copper bands with Sterling silver nuggets.

I asked her whether she ever got green stained fingers and she said “never”! She reminded me of all the healing powers of copper, the supposed anti-inflammatory action for arthritis and much more. Yes, I know, the internet is full of copper talk on subjects like “Copper Energy”.
But is any of this true? And why do some people apparently get green fingers and others do not?

This post reports on some answers.

To my amazement I found that metallic copper (and other metals like nickel and even gold and platinum) are not inert when placed on the skin, as when wearing a ring. Copper corrodes and the result is a film of copper salts such as copper acetate, basic cupric acetate and copper carbonate, also called verdigris (from Vert de Grece) salts. These are what we know as patina on weathered copper pipes and roofs, or statues like Lady Liberty in New York Harbor. This process is accelerated mostly by water, oxygen and salt (NaCl) of which there is plenty in sea water.

So what about a copper ring on your finger? The skin of the hand is covered with acidic secretions from 2 sources: sweat from eccrine sweat glands (clammy hands), and sebum which comes from sebaceous glands and is an oily substance that keeps the skin impermeable and acts as a physical barrier for germs that might otherwise penetrate through the skin. While the pH (a measure of acidity) is neutral inside the body, at around pH 7, the pH on the skin is 4-6, or quite acidic. This kills germs, but also contributes to corrosion of metals! Many normally produced substances are weak acids and are found in sweat and in sebum: amino acids, lactate, pyruvate, butyrate, and acidic lipids such as fatty acids.

In a lab experiment, metallic copper was exposed to sweat for 24 hours: the concentration of copper salts in the sweat increased by 100 fold!

In another experiment researchers measured the loss of copper from bracelets worn by volunteers. The bracelets lost 0.1 to 0.8% of their weight over one month due to copper corrosion. It was interesting that there was variation among the volunteers suggesting that some people corrode copper much faster than others! Finally, a study from Scandinavia looked at people referred to as “rusters”, who were known to corrode copper at a fast rate. These would be people with very green looking fingers after wearing a copper ring! They wanted to find out what was the difference between the sweat of these people and normal controls. It wasn’t the amout of salt (NaCl) or the acidity, but rather the copious amounts of watery sweat they produced…that means they had more water on the skin surface! Sweaty palms I guess.

While the copper from your jewelry can be dissolved on the skin as described above, there is also evidence that it can be absorbed through the skin and enter the body.

Whether copper has beneficial (anti-inflammatory) effects in humans with arthritis is still debated. There is only one study that has shown such effects in rats.

Note that copper can be toxic for cells. The oxidation process apparently results in toxic molecules called free radicals. It is these free radicals that are thought to explain the contraceptive effect of the common copper IUD by killing sperm and inhibiting implantation! Who would have thought?

With all the copper that we are exposed to, as through copper pipes with hot water in them, copper cooking pots, copper coins, and copper in most metal alloys, including those used for dental fillings, I do not think you need to be worried about the small amounts that may come from a copper ring. If you are a “ruster” but insist on wearing copper, you can still treat the copper jewelry with Copper Shield, or a similar acrylic product.  I have also used  clear Lacquer spray #2105 from Nikolas, although it smells terrible when you apply it!  Any of these create a thin film that will insulate the copper from exposure to water, salt and oxygen and thus prevents corrosion, tarnish or verdigris.

My friend and teacher, Honey Jeanne Laber, has taught me how to use a flame (acetylene torch) and ‘color’ copper to get red, brown and even blue tones.  You want to do this on a finished product.   You can no longer buff the metal or shine it in any way or you will lose the tarnish effect.  To preserve this finish use bees wax!  You have to heat it up, for example in a hot water bath.  Then you can use a rag, dip it in the wax and apply generously.  Then you have to rub with your rag.  It takes quite a bit of rubbing.  The final result is a shiny finish with a protected varnish and color. A ring treated in this way does NOT tarnish your fingers!

I would love to hear your thoughts on copper jewelry.

Sources:

M A I D S T O N E J E W E L R Y
David Posnett
2 Maidstone Park Road
East Hampton, NY 11937

631 379 2200
studio@maidstonejewelry.com
www.maidstonejewelry.com